United States science and technology policy: issues for the nineties
Published in Simon Schwartzman (coord.), Science and Technology in Brazil - A New Policy for a Global World, volume 1 Rio de Janeiro, Fundação Getúlio Vargas, 1995, pp. 140-226.
Publisher Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Collection simonschwartzman; additional_collections
This review of issues in U.S. Science and Technology Policy was prepared for a study of Science and Technology Policy of Brazil, being conducted under the direction of Prof. Simon Schwartzman of the Fundacao Getulio Vargas, and supported by the World Bank. This analysis focuses on the science and technology issues as they relate to the changing political and economic environment in the U.S. While this paper does not attempt to evaluate S&T policy issues in Brazil, the possible impacts of policy changes in the U.S. on Brazil are noted. The paper does not deal in detail with a number of "science for policy" issues, such as health care, environmental preservation, defense technology, education, or the cultural value of science, even though these are very important issues in the U.S. at this time. Defense technology is dealt with extensively in this paper, but not from the perspective of defense requirements as much as from the considerable impact of defense procurement and R&D activities in the economy and the expectation that much of the new civilian technology program proposed by President-elect Clinton will be paid for out of defense funding. The defense establishments in the U.S. and in Brazil continue to have a major role in technology, but with the rising importance of economic goals, the role of defense is diminishing in both countries in comparison with private sector activity and government investments in industrially relevant technology.